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On Food And#Cooking: The@%Science And$?Lore Of The Kit-chen

 
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On Food And#Cooking: The@%Science And$?Lore Of The Kit-chen
 MessagePosté le: Ven 20 Mai - 20:32 (2016) Répondre en citant  
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  philbal


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On Food And Cooking: The Science And Lore Of The Kitchen > urlin.us/2bpft





And,,over,,the,,last,,decade,,its,,focus,,,the,,understanding,,of,,culinary,,excellence,,,has,,taken,,on,,new,,economic,,significanceThe,,,,combination,,,,of,,,,breeding,,,,and,,,,optimal,,,,feed,,,,formulation,,,,has,,,,led,,,,to,,,,per-animal,,,,yields,,,,of,,,,a,,,,hundred,,,,pounds,,,,or,,,,15,,,,gallons/58,,,,liters,,,,per,,,,day,,,,,though,,,,the,,,,American,,,,average,,,,is,,,,about,,,,half,,,,thatChymosin,,,,a,,,digestive,,,enzyme,,,from,,,the,,,stomach,,,of,,,a,,,milk-fed,,,calf,,,,is,,,exquisitely,,,designed,,,to,,,give,,,the,,,casein,,,micelles,,,a,,,haircut,,,(pThe,,,,globules,,,,rise,,,,because,,,,their,,,,fat,,,,is,,,,lighter,,,,than,,,,water,,,,,but,,,,they,,,,rise,,,,much,,,,faster,,,,than,,,,their,,,,buoyancy,,,,alone,,,,can,,,,account,,,,forFreezing,,,is,,,a,,,bad,,,idea,,,because,,,it,,,disrupts,,,milk,,,fat,,,globules,,,and,,,protein,,,particles,,,,which,,,clump,,,and,,,separate,,,when,,,thawed.Concentrated,,,Milks,,,A,,,number,,,of,,,cultures,,,have,,,traditionally,,,cooked,,,milk,,,down,,,for,,,long,,,keeping,,,and,,,ease,,,of,,,transportOnce,,,,upon,,,,a,,,,time,,,,,people,,,,lucky,,,,enough,,,,to,,,,live,,,,near,,,,a,,,,farm,,,,could,,,,taste,,,,the,,,,pasture,,,,and,,,,the,,,,seasons,,,,in,,,,milk,,,,fresh,,,,from,,,,the,,,,cowDairying,,,,is,,,,the,,,,most,,,,efficient,,,,means,,,,of,,,,obtaining,,,,nourishment,,,,from,,,,uncultivated,,,,land,,,,,and,,,,may,,,,have,,,,been,,,,especially,,,,important,,,,as,,,,farming,,,,communities,,,,spread,,,,outward,,,,from,,,,Southwest,,,,Asia.Small,,,,ruminants,,,,and,,,,then,,,,cattle,,,,were,,,,almost,,,,surely,,,,first,,,,milked,,,,into,,,,containers,,,,fashioned,,,,from,,,,skins,,,,or,,,,animal,,,,stomachsThe,,casein,,particles,,both,,weigh,,the,,fat,,globules,,down,,and,,interfere,,with,,their,,usual,,clumping:,,and,,so,,the,,fat,,remains,,evenly,,dispersed,,in,,the,,milkI,,,pointed,,,out,,,that,,,a,,,19th-century,,,German,,,chemist,,,still,,,influences,,,how,,,many,,,people,,,think,,,about,,,cooking,,,meat,,,,and,,,that,,,around,,,the,,,turn,,,of,,,the,,,20th,,,century,,,,Fannie,,,Farmer,,,began,,,her,,,cookbook,,,with,,,what,,,she,,,called,,,"condensed,,,scientific,,,knowledge",,,about,,,ingredientsYak,,,milk,,,is,,,substantially,,,richer,,,in,,,fat,,,and,,,protein,,,than,,,cow,,,milkPoultry,,ScienceWithout,,,,this,,,,stability,,,,to,,,,heat,,,,,it,,,,would,,,,be,,,,impossible,,,,to,,,,make,,,,many,,,,cream-enriched,,,,sauces,,,,and,,,,reduced-milk,,,,sauces,,,,and,,,,sweets.But,,,,Are,,,,Sensitive,,,,to,,,,Cold,,,,Freezing,,,,is,,,,a,,,,different,,,,storyMilk,,,,is,,,,food,,,,for,,,,the,,,,beginning,,,,eater,,,,,a,,,,gulpable,,,,essence,,,,distilled,,,,by,,,,the,,,,mother,,,,from,,,,her,,,,own,,,,more,,,,variable,,,,and,,,,challenging,,,,dietThey,,,,thus,,,,acidify,,,,the,,,,milk,,,,,and,,,,in,,,,so,,,,doing,,,,,make,,,,it,,,,less,,,,habitable,,,,by,,,,other,,,,microbes,,,,,including,,,,many,,,,that,,,,would,,,,make,,,,the,,,,milk,,,,unpalatable,,,,or,,,,cause,,,,diseaseMost,,,,cows,,,,secrete,,,,more,,,,fat,,,,in,,,,winter,,,,,due,,,,mainly,,,,to,,,,concentrated,,,,winter,,,,feed,,,,and,,,,the,,,,approaching,,,,end,,,,of,,,,their,,,,lactation,,,,periodISBN978-0-684-80001-1When,,,our,,,ancestors,,,took,,,up,,,dairying,,,,they,,,adopted,,,the,,,cow,,,,the,,,ewe,,,,and,,,the,,,goat,,,as,,,surrogate,,,mothersThe,,longer,,UHT,,treatment,,imparts,,a,,cooked,,flavor,,and,,slightly,,brown,,color,,to,,milk;,,cream,,contains,,less,,lactose,,and,,protein,,,so,,its,,color,,and,,flavor,,are,,less,,affected.Sterilized,,milk,,has,,been,,heated,,at,,230-250F/110-121C,,for,,8,,to,,30,,minutes;,,it,,is,,even,,darker,,and,,stronger,,in,,flavor,,,and,,keeps,,indefinitely,,at,,room,,temperature.Homogenization,,Left,,to,,itself,,,fresh,,whole,,milk,,naturally,,separates,,into,,two,,phases:,,fat,,globules,,clump,,together,,and,,rise,,to,,form,,the,,cream,,layer,,,leaving,,a,,fat-depleted,,phase,,below,,(pIf,,you,,know,,that,,heat,,is,,a,,manifestation,,of,,the,,movements,,of,,molecules,,,and,,that,,sufficiently,,energetic,,collisions,,disrupt,,the,,structures,,of,,molecules,,and,,eventually,,break,,them,,apart,,,then,,you're,,very,,close,,to,,understanding,,why,,heat,,solidifies,,eggs,,and,,makes,,foods,,tastier.Most,,readers,,today,,have,,at,,least,,a,,vague,,idea,,of,,proteins,,and,,fats,,,molecules,,and,,energy,,,and,,a,,vague,,idea,,is,,enough,,to,,follow,,most,,of,,the,,explanations,,in,,the,,first,,13,,chapters,,,which,,cover,,common,,foods,,and,,ways,,of,,preparing,,themThe,,,,lactose-digesting,,,,enzyme,,,,,lactase,,,,,reaches,,,,its,,,,maximum,,,,levels,,,,in,,,,the,,,,human,,,,intestinal,,,,lining,,,,shortly,,,,after,,,,birth,,,,,and,,,,then,,,,slowly,,,,declines,,,,,with,,,,a,,,,steady,,,,minimum,,,,level,,,,commencing,,,,at,,,,between,,,,two,,,,and,,,,five,,,,years,,,,of,,,,age,,,,and,,,,continuing,,,,through,,,,adulthood.The,,,,logic,,,,of,,,,this,,,,trend,,,,is,,,,obvious:,,,,it's,,,,a,,,,waste,,,,of,,,,its,,,,resources,,,,for,,,,the,,,,body,,,,to,,,,produce,,,,an,,,,enzyme,,,,when,,,,it's,,,,no,,,,longer,,,,needed;,,,,and,,,,once,,,,most,,,,mammals,,,,are,,,,weaned,,,,,they,,,,never,,,,encounter,,,,lactose,,,,in,,,,their,,,,food,,,,againThe,,,,best,,,,answer,,,,is,,,,likely,,,,to,,,,be,,,,not,,,,a,,,,single,,,,large,,,,white,,,,bullet,,,,,but,,,,the,,,,familiar,,,,balanced,,,,diet,,,,and,,,,regular,,,,exercise.Milk,,,,Proteins,,,,Become,,,,Something,,,,More,,,,We,,,,used,,,,to,,,,think,,,,that,,,,one,,,,of,,,,the,,,,major,,,,proteins,,,,in,,,,milk,,,,,casein,,,,(pCooks,,had,,been,,developing,,their,,own,,body,,of,,practical,,knowledge,,for,,thousands,,of,,years,,,and,,had,,plenty,,of,,reliable,,recipes,,to,,work,,with.I,,had,,been,,fascinated,,by,,chemistry,,and,,physics,,when,,I,,was,,growing,,up,,,experimented,,with,,electroplating,,and,,Tesla,,coils,,and,,telescopes,,,and,,went,,to,,Caltech,,planning,,to,,study,,astronomyNow,,,that,,,figure,,,is,,,down,,,to,,,less,,,than,,,10%After,,,,a,,,,few,,,,days,,,,,when,,,,the,,,,colostrum,,,,flow,,,,has,,,,ceased,,,,and,,,,the,,,,milk,,,,is,,,,saleable,,,,,the,,,,calf,,,,is,,,,put,,,,on,,,,a,,,,diet,,,,of,,,,reconstituted,,,,and,,,,soy,,,,milks,,,,,and,,,,the,,,,cow,,,,is,,,,milked,,,,two,,,,or,,,,three,,,,times,,,,daily,,,,to,,,,keep,,,,the,,,,secretory,,,,cells,,,,working,,,,at,,,,full,,,,capacity.The,,,,Milk,,,,Factory,,,,The,,,,mammary,,,,gland,,,,is,,,,an,,,,astonishing,,,,biological,,,,factory,,,,,with,,,,many,,,,different,,,,cells,,,,and,,,,structures,,,,working,,,,together,,,,to,,,,create,,,,,store,,,,,and,,,,dispense,,,,milkThe,,,,earliest,,,,hard,,,,evidence,,,,of,,,,dairying,,,,to,,,,date,,,,consists,,,,of,,,,clay,,,,sieves,,,,,which,,,,have,,,,been,,,,found,,,,in,,,,the,,,,settlements,,,,of,,,,the,,,,earliest,,,,northern,,,,European,,,,farmers,,,,,from,,,,around,,,,5000,,,,BCEThe,,caseins,,usually,,outweigh,,the,,whey,,proteins,,,as,,they,,do,,in,,cow's,,milk,,by,,4,,to,,1.Both,,caseins,,and,,whey,,proteins,,are,,unusual,,among,,food,,proteins,,in,,being,,largely,,tolerant,,of,,heatTainted,,milk,,was,,a,,major,,cause,,of,,child,,mortality,,in,,early,,Victorian,,times.Industrial,,and,,Scientific,,Innovations,,Beginning,,around,,1830,,,industrialization,,transformed,,European,,and,,American,,dairyingI,,,,will,,,,also,,,,appreciate,,,,the,,,,help,,,,of,,,,readers,,,,who,,,,notice,,,,errors,,,,that,,,,I've,,,,made,,,,and,,,,missed,,,,,and,,,,who,,,,let,,,,me,,,,know,,,,so,,,,that,,,,I,,,,can,,,,correct,,,,themWhen,,our,,ancestors,,took,,up,,dairying,,,they,,adopted,,the,,cow,,,the,,ewe,,,and,,the,,goat,,as,,surrogate,,mothersAround,,30,,million,,years,,ago,,,the,,earth's,,warm,,,moist,,climate,,became,,seasonally,,aridPasteurized,,milk,,contains,,very,,few,,living,,cells,,or,,active,,enzyme,,molecules,,,so,,it,,is,,more,,predictably,,free,,of,,bacteria,,that,,could,,cause,,food,,poisoning,,,and,,more,,stable;,,it,,develops,,off-flavors,,more,,slowly,,than,,raw,,milkGet,,access,,to,,the,,best,,in,,romance:,,free,,reads,,,specially,,priced,,offers,,,and,,exclusive,,content!,,‹,,›,,Sharing,,great,,books,,with,,great,,readersBeginning,,,around,,,pH,,,4.7,,,,the,,,scattered,,,casein,,,proteins,,,lose,,,their,,,negative,,,charge,,,,bond,,,to,,,each,,,other,,,again,,,and,,,form,,,a,,,continuous,,,,fine,,,network:,,,and,,,the,,,milk,,,solidifies,,,,or,,,curdlesI've,,,tried,,,throughout,,,to,,,give,,,at,,,least,,,a,,,brief,,,indication,,,of,,,the,,,range,,,of,,,possibilities,,,offered,,,by,,,foods,,,themselves,,,and,,,by,,,different,,,national,,,traditions.The,,,other,,,new,,,emphasis,,,is,,,on,,,the,,,flavors,,,of,,,foods,,,,and,,,sometimes,,,on,,,the,,,particular,,,molecules,,,that,,,create,,,flavorFresh,,milk,,and,,cream,,can,,be,,boiled,,down,,to,,a,,fraction,,of,,their,,volume,,without,,curdling.The,,Caseins,,The,,casein,,family,,includes,,four,,different,,kinds,,of,,proteins,,that,,gather,,together,,into,,microscopic,,family,,units,,called,,micelles 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